Burdizzo is a castration device which employs a large clamp designed to break the blood vessels leading into the testicles. Once the blood supply to the testicles is lost, testicular necrosis occurs, and the testicles shrink, soften, and eventually deteriorate completely. When the device is used the operator crushes the spermatic cords one at a time, leaving a space in between in order to maintain an interruption of blood-flow to the scrotum.

The Burdizzo has the advantage of elastrator rings in that it is non-invasive and causes no bleeding. Unlike elastrator rings it can be used on older animals.

The burdizzo is used primarily on farm animals such as cattle and sheep.


Limber tail syndrome

Limber tail syndrome, or acute caudal myopathy, is a disorder of the muscles in the tail, usually affecting working dogs.

An injury occurring mostly in sporting or working dogs such as English Pointers, English Setters, Foxhounds, Beagles, and Labrador Retrievers. Limber Tail Syndrome is also known as Cold Water Tail, Broken Tail, Dead Tail or Broken Wag.

Typically the presentation is a young adult dog with an acutely flaccid tail that hangs down from the tail base or is held horizontally for 3-4 inches and then drops down. The tail remains in this position even when the dog moves about.  Pain may be seen on touching the tail base and some owners report that the dog seems uncomfortable.  The best thing to do is leave the tail alone.

Necropsy Show and Tell

Example of one pathology image that can be found on website

One of the best collection of veterinary pathology images that can be found on-line is available at Dr. John M. King’s Necropsy Show and Tell.

Necropsy Show and Tell is a collection of 35mm slide images of necropsy specimens collected by Dr. John M. King at the Cornell College of Veterinary Medicine over the past 30 years. Selected images have been scanned into the computer and cataloged for your use in these pages. Searches to find individual images are performed by searching on keywords used to catalog each of the images.

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Probang used on cattle for FMD sampling (© All rights reserved by Eufmd)

Probang is surgical tool in veterinary medicine used to reach obstructions and either force them along the oesophagus by (gently and carefully) using the probang as a ram or, by using a hollow probang into which a rod with a corkscrew is attached, extract objects such as pieces of potato or turnip too long for the paunch, or to take samples like for example foot and mouth disease. It is used mainly for cattle, but it can be used also for small ruminants and other animals.

Kahun papyrus

Veterinary papyrus

Veterinary papyrus

Kahun papyrus (c. 1900 b.C.) is first written data about veterinary medicine and probably the most famous of these ancient Egyptian medical texts and provides the most extensive detail on veterinary matters. Several treatments for some diseases are described, including diseases of cattle, dogs, birds and fish and they are concentrating largely on afflictions that concern the animal’s eyes.

This is a part of text from the large fragment of papyrus:

[Treatment for the eyes (?) of a dog with (?)] the nest of a worm …………… if when it courses (?) scenting (?) the ground, it falls down, it should be said “mysterious prostration as to it.” When the incantations have been said I should thrust my hand within its hemu, a henu of water at my side. When the hand of a man reaches to wash the bone of its back, the man should wash his hand in this henu of water each time that the hand becomes gummed (?) until thou hast drawn forth the heat-dried blood, or anything else or the hesa (?). Thou wilt know that he is cured on the coming of the hesa. Also keep thy fingers ………….

Treatment for the eyes (?) of a bull with the wind (cold ?) If I see [a bull with] wind, he is with his eyes running, his forehead ? uden (wrinkled ?) the roots (gums ?) of his teeth red, his neck swollen (or raised ?): repeat the incantation for him. Let him be laid on his side, let him be sprinkled with cold water, let his eyes and his hoofs (?) and all his body be rubbed with gourds (?) or melons, let him be fumigated with gourds ……… wait herdsman ……………. be soaked ………….. that it draws in soaking ……….. until it dissolves into water: let him be rubbed with gourds of cucumbers. Thou shalt gash (?) him upon his nose and his tail, thou shalt say as to it, “he that has a cut either dies with it or lives with it.” If he does not recover and he is wrinkled (?) under thy fingers, and blinks (?) his eyes, thou shalt bandage his eyes with linen lighted with fire to stop the running.

Treatment for the eyes (?) of a bull with ushau in winter If I see a bull with [usham] in winter, and he is blinded (?) his two eyes are thick; gash thou as above. If I see abull with ushau in winter from cold, since its arrival in (?) summer, his temples are wrinkled (?), his eyes running, his stomach groaning (?), he does not walk (?) ………………….. thou all its body with ……….. as is done to one with a bruise (?).]

Note: According to this source, “ushau” is probably trypanosomiasis.